Posts Tagged ‘Probiotics’

The Microbiome in Diverticular Disease

Thursday, November 10th, 2016

New techniques which identify individual species have lead to an explosion of research into the role of bacteria in the colon. The terms ‘microbiota’ (the bacteria) and ‘microbiome’ (the collection of bacteria) are widely used. Some researchers consider the microbiome as equivalent to a body organ. It is certainly a significant, integral and specific part of the digestive system in man and animals. In protein-eating humans the microbiome is in the caecum, the first bag-like part of the large intestine which receives the residues of digestion and has enzymes which degrade amino acids from proteins. In herbivores the microbiome is in an earlier part of the digestive system to deal with large quantities of plant material to extract maximum nutrients for its host with enzymes to synthesise amino acids (1). The microbiome in humans can have both beneficial and unhelpful effects. Its position in the human body and the role of an associated appendix had not been considered apart from the letter on this website (2). The appendix is no longer considered a vestigial organ (3), contains extremely variable bacteria (4) and may be involved in microbiome changes (5).

Differences in the bacteria present in the microbiome have been found in conditions  such as obesity, autoimmune diseases, autism and bowel disease including diverticular disease (DD). The microbiome and its surrounding immune system are linked (6).

  • Is the microbiome content a cause or an effect of a disease?
  • Is the presence of a specific organism significant?
  • Could the microbiome be changed to treat a disease?

These are the questions research is trying to answer. Bacteria will only survive and flourish if the conditions and nutrients are right for the species. There is great variation both between and within people, with age and even with geographical location. So far only diet appears to make a difference (1, 7). Does the microbiome match dietary residues and the disease affect diet? (more…)

The colon’s little helpers

Sunday, February 6th, 2011


A report in 2007 by doctors at Duke University USA (1) proposed that the appendix functioned as a safe house for beneficial bacteria in the human gut. Rather than assessing the significance of this proposal for human biology, news agencies and internet sites seemed more concerned with the creation v evolution argument. The appendix had previously thought to be a relic of evolution even though its structure suggested otherwise.

The authors were unaware that I had come to the same conclusion in 1999 (2). Their literature search had not picked this up. Their proposal was based on observations of bacteria and immune system activity in the film of mucus lining the appendix and colon. My conclusion followed the realisation of why there was a symbiotic relationship with bacteria in the colon (more…)