About the author

Qualified as a Pharmacist (MRPharmS) at the Liverpool School of Pharmacy which is now within John Moores University, and continued there as a researcher for a few years until invited to do research at the University of Strathclyde, Glasgow.

The research primarily explored the effects of pharmaceutical preservatives on the germination of mould spores. This expanded into area such as bacterial spore germination, the inactivation of preservatives by formulation ingredients and product testing. A theme throughout the research was the possibility of automatic counting and sizing of microorganisms. An instrument for electronic particle size analysis had been developed by Coulter Electronics Ltd. and freeze-dried mould spores were supplied to the company for calibration purposes. A research paper was also published describing the possible use of the instrument in mould taxonomy. Overall, thirteen research papers and technical articles resulted from this work.


Fellow of the College of Technology Liverpool (FCT Liverpool)

Doctor of Philosophy, University of Strathclyde (PhD)

Chartered Biologist Member of the Royal Society of Biology (CBiol MRSB)


Employment by a pharmaceutical company in areas of research, new product development and quality control. Permitted external publications were –

“Capacity tests for the evaluation of preservatives in formulations” Soap, Perfumery and Cosmetics. 1969, XL11, 729.

An investigation into how preserved products could be tested for their efficacy against repeated contamination by bacteria, moulds and yeasts.

“Development and testing of an antiseptic handwash formulation containing chlorhexidine” Manufacturing Chemist and Aerosol News. 1973, 44, 29.

This article described how detergent and antiseptic were combined to develop a handwash containing 4% Chlorhexidine gluconate, achieving both short and long term antiseptic properties. The product was marketed with the trade name of “HIBISCRUB” and is still in use for medical, veterinary and hygiene purposes more than 40 years later. The article has been cited in patent applications.


PJ 1994, 252, 458. “Diseases of the Bowel”   Comment on a diagram in an article that had wrongly labelled diverticula as colon cancer and put diverticular disease in the rectum where it does not occur.

PJ 1999, 263, 569. “More pieces for the jigsaw please”    A role for the appendix as a safe culture vessel and inoculating system to deliver actively growing organisms into the caecum. Why the body might need these symbiotic bacteria for inactivation of digestive enzymes and how this might be relevant in Ulcerative Colitis were discussed.

PJ 2000, 264, 693. “Link with Irritable Bowel Syndrome”   Fluctuating levels of serotonin (5HT) in the blood could link both Migraine and IBS and the variety of effects on the body. This might  be relevant to the effects of 5HT drugs for IBS.

PJ 2002, 269, 99. “Diarrhoea means different things to different people”   A comment on a journal article which gave the wrong reasons for faeces colour differences. Diarrhoea is not exclusively caused by infection. Patients have many experiences and reasons for what they call ‘diarrhoea’. Health professionals should make sure they and the patient are talking about the same thing.

PJ 2002, 269, 568 “ Rethink indicated for diverticular disease”   Diverticular disease is loosing out in research and in consideration of diseases of aging.

PJ 2003, 271, 322. “More caution required in the use of antispasmodics”   Adding an antispasmodic to the general sale list for IBS may have problems for diverticular disease patients who are told their symptoms are due to IBS. Pain in diverticular disease can have serious causes and drugs promoted as ‘intestinal analgesics’ might not be appropriate

PJ 2004, 273, 514. “NHS Direct correction”   The NHS Direct website gave dangerous information for people with diverticulitis

PJ 2014, 292, 431. “E-cigarettes. Glamorising smoking”   The pharmacological effects of nicotine are still relevant in e-cigarettes but are rarely mentioned in their promotion.

PJ 2019, 302, 293. “E-cigarettes have no place in pharmacy” A suggestion that e-cigarettes can be used to sustain an addiction for life ignores nicotine’s long term effects. DOI:10.1211/PJ.2019.20206527

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